Scheduling Spring Turn-ons

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Networked Team of Associates

KT Enterprises, Inc.

TDS - Total Development Solutions

HLS - Heritage Landscape Services

Pro-tech Service Company

South Riding Nurseries

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Below is a list of Key terms & references to assist you in your decisions and research. Got a question? We are happy to help.  Since only a certain amount of information can be covered in this section, please do not hesitate to contact KT Irrigation if you have any questions.


Arc - Describes how far around in a circular pattern a sprinkler will rotate or spray.

Backflow Preventer - A device installed between the P.O.C. and the sprinklers that is designed to keep water from the system from re-entering the public water supply. Most common are Reduced-Pressure (RPZ), and Pressure Vacuum Breaker (PVB). Local codes differ as to which model to use.

Check Valve
- A spring inside a sprinkler head that will hold back water in the pipe that has a 1-10 foot elevation change. This solves the problem of low head drainage.

Controller - A timer that allows your sprinkler system to function automatically. Cycle- Refers to one complete operation of a controller.

Cycle and Soak - A method of irrigating that allows the soil sufficient time to absorb the water before continuing irrigation. GPM- Gallons Per Minute - The available GPM must be known prior to system design. The total GPM of all sprinklers in a zone should not exceed the available GPM.

Head-To-Head - Describes the correct placement of sprinkler heads. Each sprinkler should spray to each other, providing complete coverage and preventing dry spots.

Lateral Line - Pipe running from the valve to the sprinkler. These lines are only under pressure when the zone is running. Main Line- Pressurized pipe running from the P.O.C. to the zone control valves.

Manifold - A group of valves in one box.

Matched Precipitation Rate
- A system or zone in which all the heads have similar precipitation rates. Correct nozzle sizes are determined based on coverage areas and precipitation rates. If not properly matched, the system will have either wet or dry spots.

P.O.C. --Point of Connection- The main tie-in point for the system. Poly Pipe- Polyethylene - Black, flexible pipe that comes in 300 foot rolls. Popular for use with a Vibratory Plow and in cold weather areas. Pipe is joined using Insert Fittings and Crimps.

Precipitation Rate
- The rate at which water is applied to plant material, expressed in inches per hour.

Program - The information entered into the controller to run the system. You need to fill-in three blanks: What zone is going to run, How long is it going to run, and How often it is going to run.

PVC Pipe - Polyvinyl Chloride- White, rigid pipe that comes in 20 foot sticks. Popular for use on projects where trenching is involved and in warmer climates. Pipe is joined using Primer and Solvent (Glue). SDR 21 pipe is most popular for irrigation systems. PVC is also used as the main line in poly pipe systems due to its higher pressure rating. Radius- How far out from the sprinkler head the water sprays.

- Water that is not absorbed by the soil and turf to which it is applied. It is either applied at too great a rate or on a slope.

Rotor Head - Gear-Driven sprinklers that shoot out a solid stream of water and rotate slowly in a circular pattern. Used for large areas, where the radius exceeds 17 feet.

Spray Head - A fixed sprinkler head that emits a fan-type spray of small water droplets. Used in small areas and landscape beds, where the radius is less than 17'. The pattern of spray is determined by the specific nozzle used.

Station - Also known as "Zone." It consists of a set of heads that run at once base on available GPM and/or area of lawn/landscape. Each zone has one control valve and is activated by the controller. Only one station is designed to run at a time.

Valve - There are two types of valves in a sprinkler system:

Shut-Off Valves - Most common are Gate Valves, which have a wheel type handle. It takes several turns to open or close the valve and they are not recommended for frequent use. Ball Valves have a single handle and only require a quarter turn to open/close. Better for frequent use and are considered more reliable.

Zone Control Valves
- These are 24-volt automatic valves used in conjunction with a controller. There is one valve for each zone. They provide a convenient, economical way of delivering water to your lawn and landscape.

- The speed at which water travels through a pipe. Irrigation design should keep velocity under 5 feet per second.

Water Hammer - The surging of pressure which occurs when a control valve is suddenly closed. In extreme conditions, this surging will cause the pipes to vibrate or create a pounding noise. Water Hammer is most commonly caused by fast-closing valves or pipes that have been sized too small causing high velocity water flow.

Zone - A set of heads that are run at once based on available GPM and/or area of lawn being covered. Each zone is controlled by one remote valve.

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